Science is a fascinating subject that involves lots of experiential learning. Learning by doing is the main attractive feature that is most enjoyed by the student. According to the NEP ( National Education Policy), the focus of education has been shifted from subjective to experiential learning. A student learns better by seeing and doing rather than simply reading and memorization. Rote memory which was mainly followed till now has been challenged and more experiments are being promoted.
So here are the award-inspiring science project ideas that will enhance your creativity and help you to learn the science concept in a more efficient way. These are the simple science project ideas that will lead to a lot of cognitive learning among students. They are simple and fun too!
Science Project ideas for Pre Primary Kids ( Kindergarten – LKG, and UKG)
Invisible ink experiment
This is a very interesting experiment to invoke curiosity in a child. Take a lemon and squeeze its juice in a bowl. Ask your child to take his paintbrush and use the lemon juice as the ink and draw any picture. The picture will be invisible, nobody can see it. After some time take that picture in sunlight or tube light. The picture will be visible. This is because lemon juice oxidises and turns brown in the presence of heat !! Your child will be amazed to see this magic.
Oil and Water experiment
Oil and water don’t mix with each other, and due to differences in their densities. the oil floats above the water. This can be easily demonstrated to the child by taking oil and water in two separate jars and then allowing the child to mix the content of two jars into the third jar. Shake this jar by closing the lid. Allow it to rest for sometime. Oil will come up and water will settle down.
Science Project For Primary School ( Class 1- 5 )
Sounds interesting, isn’t it! This experiment is fun not only for the kids but for the whole family. Lemon is a common household ingredient found in almost every kitchen. Its immunity power is known to all of us but it can be converted to a battery also is a less known fact. You will need the following material for this
- 4 lemons
- 4 Galvanized nails
- 4 copper pieces ( copper wire can be used)
- 5 Alligator clips with wire
- I Small light bulb
- Squeeze all lemon juice and pulp from all the four lemons.
- Attach one copper piece and also the zinc nail to the squeezed lemon
- Now using the wire attach the galvanised nail of one lemon and the copper piece of the second lemon. Do this to all the other lemons. In the end you should have one nail 9 Of the last lemon) and one copper piece (of the first lemon) unattached.
- Now join the unattached copper piece and unattached nail to the light bulb.
- The light bulb will glow as lemon acts as a battery.
Salt and Ice experiment
This experiment helps the child explore the dynamics between ice and salt, and how salt affects the freezing temperature of water. Some kids also use this as magic trick for the parties! Materials required for this simple science project are
- A piece of string
- A glass filled with water
- Few ice cubes.
- Take a glass of water and put ice cubes in it. They float.
- Now wet the string and place it on top of ice cubes ( better to use a wet string instead of dry string ). Both the ends of the string should be out of the glass
- Are you able to lift the ice cubes out of the glass using the string? Answer is NO.
- Start your magic trick now. Sprinkle some salt over the ice cubes and say a few magic words (just to show your audience that you are a true magician)……Now lift the ice cube again with the string. Can you do it now? Yes!
This can be explained as follows. The salt lowers the freezing point of the water. This causes the water around ice to refreeze and string gets glued to the ice. Theta why you are able to lift the ice cube with the help of string.
Science Project Ideas For Middle School ( Class 6 – 8 )
Acid Rain Project
Rainwater contains some amount of acid in its natural form. But if air is toxic and the amount of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide or other toxic gas increases in it due to man made or natural activities( yes even natural activities like forest fire can contribute to toxic air) the acidic content of the air increases. If rain occurs at that time then rain is called acidic rain because of its altered ph value. The effect of acid rain is widely seen on monuments, plants, animals and the whole of earth. This can be easily demonstrated through the following activity. It is a very simple science project idea.Material required
- 2 Clear glasses/ beakers
- 2 Piece White Chalk
- 1 Cup Vinegar
- 1 Pen
- 1 Measuring cup
Take glasses and mark them as Water on glass one and Vinegar on another glass with the help of marker.
Add chalk pieces to both the glass. Only half portion of the Chalk should immerse in the liquid.
Leave it undisturbed for some time..
You will observe that the chalk of the vinegar has corroded.
Vinegar is an acid and chalk is made up of a substance called limestone. The acid reacts with limestone and causes its erosion. This process results in the depletion of chalk and the release of carbon dioxide. In nature this is what happens when acid rain falls on earth. Slowly and slowly corrosion takes place. This is the cause of the yellowing of the Taj Mahal monument.
Greenhouse and Global Warming Effect Model
The greenhouse effect means the heating of the earth due to a blanket formed by greenhouse gases ( like Methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxides, and fluorinates ). Sun rays fall on earth causing the heating of the lithosphere but they are not able to move out of the atmosphere due to the greenhouse gases. GHG( greenhouse gases) traps the heat causing a rise in the atmospheric temperature. This can be easily demonstrated through this project.
- 2 glass jars os same size
- Cold Water
- Ice cubes
- Plastic wrap
- Fill both the glasses with water.
- Add an equal number of ice cubes in both the glasses of water.
- Tightly Wrap one glass with plastic wrap. This glass will act as greenhouse glass
- Keep both the glasses in sunlight for at least an hour.
- Take the temperature of both the glasses.
- You will find that the glass with plastic is hotter than the other one
Here the plastic wrap acts as greenhouse gas. They allow the heat of the sun to enter but don’t allow them to exit. That’s why the temperature of the water rises.
Barometer is a device used to measure the atmospheric pressure.It is used to predict changes in the atmospheric condition. Atmosphere is the layers of blankets of gases wrapped around the earth. Meteorologists use a barometer for prediction of short term changes in the atmospheric pressure. A sudden dip in the reading of the barometer indicates low pressure in that area which can be related to formation of cyclones or rain as viewed in combination of other parameters. One can easily make this project for the school.
- A wide mouth clear glass jar
- A ballon
- Few rubber bands
- A Silicon glue tube
- Adhesive tape
- 2 Plastic Straws
- A small thick coloured ( preferably red) cardboard paper
- Cut the balloon into half using the scissor. Keep one part ( one end close and the other side open) and discard the other one 9 one with both ends open)
- Take the glass jar and cover it with the kept portion of the balloon.
- Use the rubber band to fit the balloon firmly on the jar. It should be tightly fitted.
- Cut a small triangular shape arrow from the cardboard paper. Fit this arrow at the one end of the straw. This attachment should be firm. If it is wobbly then adjust the arrow by making it wider or if it is too large then trim the base of the arrow. Arrow should fit in the straw nicely.
- Fit another straw at the open end of the above straw (with arrow)
- Glue this long straw on the middle of the balloon on the jar.
- Attach the ruler to a paper and fix it vertically to a wall in your house.
- Now place the jar with the long arrow head facing towards the ruler marking.
- Observe the changes in the arrow pointer everyday.
- The glass jar is sealed so the atmospheric pressure remains the same. But as the outside atmospheric pressure changes it exerts a pressure on the balloon and the arrow moves accordingly.
Electrical Conductivity Model
Electricity means the flow of electrons through any material. Electrical conductivity is the measurement of how easily a substance permits the electric current to pass through them. Depending on the ease or difficulty the various materials can be classified into conductors or insulators. Conductors are the substance which easily allow the electric current to pass through them while insulators are the substance which don’t allow the electricity to pass through them. This concept can be easily demonstrated in school science fair through Salt Water experiment. It is exciting to know that salt water is a conductor of electricity. Following materials are required to conduct this experiment
- Zinc coated nail
- Copper wire
- Small glass jar
- Two insulated wires with Alligator clips
- Make a saltwater solution by adding one teaspoon of salt to a glass of water.
- Take a zinc coated nail and dip it in the salt solution such that half of it is in the solution and half is above the solution. This will act as negative electrode
- Secure it with tape and alligator clip on the side of the jar
- Repeat step three and four above with the copper wire. This will act as a positive electrode.
- Attach the voltmeter by opening the alligator clips and attaching the open wire. The copper electrode should be attached to the positive side of the voltmeter and the zinc electrode should be attached to the negative terminal of the voltmeter.
- Now record the reading of the voltmeter.
- Add one teaspoon of salt to the solution and record the reading. Keep on adding the salt and keep writing your reading of the voltmeter.
You will observe that the reading increases as the salt is added. This proves that salt increases the electrical conductivity of water.
Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine
Wind turbine uses wind energy and converts this into electrical energy. Since wind is a renewable source of energy, electricity produced from it is known as clean energy.As the wind rotates the turbine, the motor ( which is attached to the other end of the turbine) starts moving and generates electricity.
For making this project you will need a small fan, a 12 inches pipe on which you will attach a turbine( it can be three blades or four. Three is usually preferred in real turbines) an electric motor(a small one,, you easily get it from stationary selling school project items), a cardboard, a battery, a switch.
Attach the turbine to the small pipe in such a way that it rotates freely. Fix it on the cardboard in the middle . Now place the fan in front of the turbine. Fan acts as a source of wind and when switched on will rotate the turbine.The battery and a switch should be attached to the fan.Fix the motor at the base of the turbine . make connections of the turbine with the motor using copper wire.
When you turn on the fan, the turbine will move which will start the motor and generate electricity.
Science Project Ideas For High School ( Class 9 – 12)
Water Quality Testing
It is an excellent science project ideas at home. Water is an important necessity of everyday life. So its quality is a matter of concern for all of us.We can check the water quality for various parameters like hardness, heavy metals, pH, dissolved oxygen, electrical conductivity, turbidity. The material required for testing water quality are
- Nitrate test strip
- Chlorine test strip
- Water hardness test strip
- pH 1-14 test strips
- Water from different sources
- Distilled Water
- Fill the beaker with the sample of water. Start with the tap water.
- Take the pH strip and dip it in the water. Take the reading immediately.
- Now take the hardness strip and dip it in the water and record the colour immediately.
- Do the same with Chlorine strip and record your observation.
- Nitrate test strip has to be kept in water for 2-3 seconds. Wait for a minute and record your observation.
- Repeat the steps 2 -5 for all the different water samples.
Wireless Energy Transmission
Wireless energy transmission is a very good project idea for a science exhibition. Wireless energy transmission used to be hypothetical and people didn’t used to believe it a few decades ago. But with new developments and innovation in physics it has been possible to transmit energy now without the use of copper wire. When the electrical energy is transferred from one end to the other end without the use of electrical wires, it is known as wireless energy transmission. It uses electromagnetic waves and inductive coupling technique to do so. Satellite transmission, mobile communication system, bluetooth technology are few examples of wireless energy transmission.
Materials required for making this project for school science fair are as follow:
- 2 bread boards
- Copper wires
- 1.5k resistor
- 1.5V battery
- Transistor BC 549
- Connecting wires
Here we glow the LED using the above materials. We make two parts in this project. One part is the transmission part and the other is the receiver section. In between these two parts a magnetic field is created through which energy is transferred from the transmission to the receiver region.
The coil is the most important part of the transmission. Make two coils, one for the transmitter and the other for the receiver. Wrap copper wire around a PVC pipe (or you can use an empty used thick plastic bottle) For the transmission coil, turn copper wire 17 times around the PVC pipe and for 34 times for the receiver end. Remove the PVC pipe and separate the copper wires and your transmission coil and receiver coil is ready.
Make the circuit using the breadboards. A battery of not more than 1.5V can be used here. Attach the battery to the receptor coil in an upright position. It will create a magnetic field around it and transfer the energy to the adjacent receiver coil. Attach the LED to the receiver coil and it will glow. This shows that energy gets transferred from the transmission section to the receiver section without any cables.
So that was all! Our journey in the quest of projects ends here. These were the various best science project ideas that can be used in school. Experiments discussed above should be done under the supervision of parents at home or teachers in the school. Though they are simple enough to be carried out individually by students, supervision of an adult is always needed in science projects. You can find a lot more simple and fun experiments for all classes on the website ProjectBot. Hope you found this article to be enlightening enough to stimulate your senses!