Imagine a corporate sector or banking without computers. It would be unwise to even think of a possibility where modern industries could survive without computers. Computers have become an integral part of our personal and professional lives.
From watching movies and playing games to the government maintaining a database of citizens, computers have their use everywhere. Computers have made our lives easier and less burdened. Before the advent of computers, calculating huge numbers and maintaining records was a tedious task. Computers have made those complex calculations possible with just a click. This is now the computer becoming the bearer of technological advancement.
What is computer full form?
First and foremost it is a machine made by humans. A computer is programmed to execute a given set of operations on command. It is an electronic device that holds the potential to deal with arithmetic operations, store and process data, data input, and data output.
What are computer components?
Components of computer systems are the primary elements that enable the electronic device to function seamlessly and faster. Here are the five basic components –
- Input unit
- Output unit
- Memory unit
- Control unit
- Arithmetical and Logical unit
What is computer system?
A computer system includes the additional hardware and software together in the computer. Every computer has a hardware and software system. Hardware refers to the parts of the computer that can be touched and seen.
For example mouse, keyboard, monitor, CPU, etc. On the other hand, the software is a programme or set of instructions that tell computers what to do. A computer also has two kinds of memory, RAM and ROM. While RAM is a volatile memory that temporarily stores the information, ROM is a non-volatile memory that has pre-recorded data stored permanently.
Types of Computers
A computer can be categorised based on different parameters. From the point of view of design and structure, a computer can be of 7 types. These types are – Analog Computer: An analogue computer uses an analogue processor to process data that changes dynamically. Such a class of computers processes information without converting it into codes or symbols.
Digital computer –
A digital computer is suited to processing discrete data, unlike analogue computers. Such classes of computers are based on binary systems. Digital computers are more accurate and reliable than analogue computers.
Hybrid computer –
It is a hybrid form of analogue and digital computer. A hybrid computer is equipped with mathematical computation features of analogue computers and digital processing of analogue signals.
Harvard architecture –
Such classes of computers are designed to read instructions and operate data at the same time. Harvard architecture computer uses separate buses for instructions and data transfer.
Von Neumann architecture –
This type of computer has a single bus for instructions and data transfer. Since they use a common bus, a Von Neumann architecture system cannot read instruction and process data simultaneously.
Complex instruction set computer –
A class of computers that have multiple instructions in a single set of instructions that are used to perform complex operations. CISCs have a microprogramming unit, and their processors are pipelined.
Reduced instruction set computers (RICS):
In an RICS, the set of instructions is narrow in comparison to a CISC. Unlike CISC, an RICS has a hardwired programming unit and pipelined processors. Also, their execution time is comparatively lower than CISC.
What is Computer Science?
A computer is a complex machine that is designed, manufactured, and built through a process that requires excellent knowledge of computers. Computer science is nothing if not a science of computers. It is a field where scientists are primarily concerned with the design and development of software systems and the smooth functioning of that software.
The scope of computer science is very vast since today’s market is filled with a wide range of computers. With such a variety of computers available to people, it becomes obvious that these computers have some different set of functions that make them special. These different sets of functions are usually related to the updated technology of software and algorithms.
A computer scientist works on algorithms, technology, and computational systems. Computer science is not only concerned with software but hardware too. Computer science seeks to monitor and analyze performances of hardware and software processes and provide a solution to keep the function of the system smooth.
Computer science includes database management, programming languages, designing algorithms, machine learning, web development, etc. This field is also related to engineering and mathematics. Theoretical computer science, which is a subfield of computer science, relies on mathematics for computational expression. Similarly, probability and statistics are also used in the informatics and coding subfields of computer science.
Career Opportunity in computer science
Computers are inseparable from the world of technology and technology is the essence of the development of modern industries. In this sense, it is wise to say that computers have their use across various industries including telecommunication, software companies, manufacturing, robotics, defence and aerospace industries, etc. With such wide applications of computer science, it is clear that there are a plethora of career opportunities available in this domain.
A student wishing to enter into the field of computer science must have the ability to acquire a diverse set of skills such as problem-solving ability, critical and analytical thinking, mathematical excellence, creativity, and logic. To pursue a career in computer science, one has to qualify for eligibility criteria, which may vary according to job roles. A brief overview of eligibility criteria can be understood as –
- 10+2 with science subject including maths and computer science
- A bachelor’s degree in computer science (B.tech, BCA, BSC (IT/computer science)) is required.
- A postgraduate degree in computer science. (M. tech, MCA, MSC (IT/computer science)
- A diploma in computer science after 10th or 10+2.
After earning a diploma or a graduate degree, a student is qualified for an entry-level position. However, you can also get supervisory roles based on your internship or professional experience. With a postgraduate degree, students can get high-paying jobs with diverse and interesting job roles as compared to graduate students. Some of the decent jobs with handsome compensation payouts available to graduates/post-graduates of computer science are, as follows:
- IT consultant
- Hardware or software engineer
- Data scientist
- Web developer
- Cybersecurity expert
- Database specialist
- System manager/analyst
- Games developer
- Technical content writer
Apart from these roles, there is a wide range of job roles available to specialists in computer science. Students with higher specialisation can even go for research and development in various subfields of computers, such as artificial intelligence, bioinformatics, geoinformation systems (GIS), etc.